“This study examined the overall psychological effects of inebriation facilitated by the naturally-occurring plant hallucinogen salvia divinorum using a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. thirty healthy individuals self-administered salvia divinorum via combustion and inhalation in a quiet, comfortable research setting. experimental sessions, post-session interviews, and 8-week follow-up meetings were audio recorded and transcribed to provide the primary qualitative material analyzed here. additionally, post-session responses to the hallucinogen rating scale provided a quantitative groundwork for mixed-methods discussion. qualitative data underwent thematic content analysis, being coded independently by three researchers before being collaboratively integrated to provide the final results. three main themes and 10 subthemes of acute intoxication emerged, encompassing the qualities of the experience, perceptual alterations, and cognitive-affective shifts. the experience was described as having rapid onset and being intense and unique. participants reported marked changes in auditory, visual, and interoceptive sensory input; losing normal awareness of themselves and their surroundings; and an assortment of delusional phenomena. additionally, the abuse potential of salvia divinorum was examined post hoc. these findings are discussed in light of previous research, and provide an initial framework for greater understanding of the subjective effects of salvia divinorum, an emerging drug of abuse.”
“Betaflexiviridae is a family of plant-infecting rna viruses with 11 recognized genera, of which genomes have diverse organization with three to six open reading frames (orfs). a genome sequence of a novel betaflexiviridae species, named salvia divinorum rna virus 1 (sdrv1), was identified in salvia divinorum, herbal mint plant with hallucinogenic properties. the sdrv1 genome was predicted to have four orfs encoding a replicase polyprotein (rep), a movement protein (mp), a coat protein (cp), and a putative nucleic acid-binding protein (nbp). phylogenetic analyses based on the rep, mp, and cp sequences indicated that sdrv1 is most closely related to members of the genus citrivirus. however, the genome organization of sdrv1 is the same as that of the genus prunevirus. moreover, the sdrv1 nbp had greatest sequence similarity with members of the genus carlavirus. a complex evolutionary history involving ancestors of these three genera might have resulted in the unique phylogenetic position of sdrv1, which could be considered the founding member of a new genus in the family betaflexiviridae. the genome sequence of sdrv1 might be useful for studies on the evolution of betaflexiviridae.”
“Salvia divinorum is a herbal plant native to the southwest region of mexico. traditional preparations of this plant have been used in illness treatments that converge with inflammatory conditions and pain. currently, s. divinorum extracts have become popular in several countries as a recreational drug due to its hallucinogenic effects. its main active component is a diterpene named salvinorin a (sa), a potent naturally occurring hallucinogen with a great affinity to the κ opioid receptors and with allosteric modulation of cannabinoid type 1 receptors. recent biochemical research has revealed the mechanism of action of the anti-inflammatory and analgesic effect of sa at the cellular and molecular level. nevertheless, because of their short-lasting and hallucinogenic effect, the research has focused on discovering a new analogue of sa that is able to induce analgesia and reduce inflammation with a long-lasting effect but without the hallucinatory component. in this review, we explore the role of s. divinorum, sa and its analogues. we focus mainly on their analgesic and anti-inflammatory roles but also mention their psychoactive properties.”
“The kappa-opioid system (kop) is the key in drug abuse. of all the compounds isolated from salvia divinorum (s. divinorum), salvinorin-a (sal-a) is predominant. further, sal-a is the only compound within s. divinorum which is reported to have psychoactive properties as a powerful kappa-opioid receptor (kopr) agonist. based on the key role of the kop system in the consumption of drugs, s. divinorum extract (sde) and sal-a may modify the alcohol intake in wistar rats. assessing voluntary alcohol intake as a drug consummatory behavior, food intake as natural reward behavior and tonic immobility as indicative of anxiety-like behavior, the present study sought to identify the role of both sde and sal-a in the wistar rat model. forty-eight adult male rats were randomly divided into six groups: control, alcohol naive and vehicle, alcohol-naive and sde, alcohol-naive and sal-a, alcohol-consumption and vehicle, alcohol-consumption and sde, and alcohol-consumption and sal-a. alcohol and food intake were assessed for two weeks. in the middle of these two weeks, vehicle, sde (containing ~1 mg/kg of sal-a) or sal-a was injected intraperitoneally once a day for a week. tonic immobility testing was performed once. the administration of sde produced a significant increase in voluntary alcohol intake especially in rats with a history of forced alcohol consumption from a juvenile age, sal-a elicited an increase in alcohol intake in animals with or without previous alcohol exposure, sde and sal-a prolonged the tonic immobility duration and decreased food intake. in conclusion, s. divinorum or sal-a stimulated alcohol consumption in rats with a history of alcohol intake and independent of previous exposure respectively, also sde or sal-a elicited an anorexigenic effect, and increased tonic immobility as indicative of anxious-like behavior.”
“The utilization of therapeutic plants is expanding around the globe, coupled with the tremendous expansion of alternative medicine and growing demand in health treatment. plants are applied in pharmaceuticals to preserve and expand health—physically, mentally and as well as to treat particular health conditions and afflictions. there are more than 600 families of plants identified so far. among the plants that are often studied for their health benefit include the genus of salvia in the mint family, lamiaceae. this review aims to determine the bioactive components of salvia and their potential as antidiabetic agents. the search was conducted using three databases (pubmed, embase and scopus), and all relevant articles that are freely available in the english language were extracted within 10 years (2011–2021). salvia spp. comprises many biologically active components that can be divided into monoterpenes, diterpenes, triterpenes, and phenolic components, but only a few of these have been studied in-depth for their health benefit claims. the most commonly studied bioactive component was salvianolic acids. interestingly, s. miltiorrhiza is undoubtedly the most widely studied salvia species in terms of its effectiveness as an antidiabetic agent. in conclusion, we hope that this review stimulates more studies on bioactive components from medicinal plants, not only on their potential as antidiabetic agents but also for other possible health benefits.”
Chen, X., Meng, S., Li, S., Zhang, L., Wu, L., Zhu, H., & Zhang, Y.. (2021). Role of 5-Hydroxytryptamine and Intestinal Flora on Depressive-Like Behavior Induced by Lead Exposure in Rats. BioMed Research International, 2021, 1–14.
“Objective. to investigate the effects of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-ht) and intestinal flora on depression-like behavior induced by lead exposure in rats. methods. 30 healthy spf adult male sd rats were randomly divided into control group and lead exposure group. the depression-like behavior of rats was detected. the blood, striatum, and intestinal tissue were collected. the lead content was detected by icp-ms. the mrna expressions of chga, tph1, 5-ht, and 5-ht3r were tested by qrt-pcr. the content of 5ht was checked by hplc-ecd. the content of 5-ht3r was detected by elisa. the protein expressions of 5-ht, 5-ht3r, chga, and tph were gauged by immunohistochemistry. fecal samples were collected, and the composition of intestinal flora in experimental rats was analyzed by 16 s rna metagene sequencing. results. lead exposure can greatly cause depression. the content of 5-ht in blood and striatum in the lead exposure group decreased, and the expression levels of 5-ht, 5-ht3 r, chga, and tph in the intestine decreased distinctly. compared with the control group, the distribution of a-polymorphism related indexes simpson, chao1, shannon, and ace in rats with depressive-like behavior after lead exposure was significantly increased; in the lead exposure group, there were 61 different operational taxonomic units (outs) in intestinal flora at the family level. based on linear discriminant analysis, it was found that the key bacteria were lactobacillaceae and bifidobacteriaceae, and their abundance decreased evidently in the lead exposure group. conclusion. lead exposure improves depressive-like behavior by affecting intestinal flora and regulating neurotransmitter 5-ht through the intestinal-brain axis.”
Kim, J., Park, Y., Kim, E. J., Jung, H., & Yoon, M.. (2021). Relationship between oxytocin and serotonin and the fearfulness, dominance, and trainability of horses. Journal of Animal Science and Technology, 63(2), 453–460.
“Oxytocin (oxt) and serotonin (5-ht) are essential neurotransmitters associated with the behavior of animals. recently, we found that the plasma concentration of oxt is positively correlated with horse docility and friendliness toward humans. however, the relationships between the neurotransmitters and other temperaments such as fearfulness, dominance, and trainability are unknown. this study aimed to identify whether the plasma concentration of oxt or 5-ht is correlated with fearfulness, dominance, and trainability of horses. blood samples of 34 horses were collected at the horse industry complex center of jeonju kijeon college. the concentration of oxt and 5-ht was measured in the plasma samples using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. the fearfulness, dominance, and trainability of horses were scored by three professors who were very familiar with the horses. one-way analysis of variance with the least significant difference post-hoc analysis was used to compare the scores for fearfulness and dominance among groups. the trainability of horses was compared using the student t-test. the 5-ht was negatively correlated with dominance, but it had no relation with fearfulness. the oxt appeared to be negatively correlated with fearfulness and dominance in horses. furthermore, oxt was positively correlated with the trainability of horses. additionally, 5-ht appeared to enhance trainability. in conclusion, the concentration of oxt or 5-ht in horse blood plasma can be used as a biomarker to monitor the fearfulness, dominance, or trainability of horses.”
“Citation: balakrishna, p.; george, s.; hatoum, h.; mukherjee, s. serotonin pathway in cancer. int. j. mol. sci. 2021, 22, 1268. doi. abstract: serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-ht) is a biogenic monoamine produced from the essential amino acid tryptophan. serotonin’s role as a neurotransmitter in the central nervous system and a motility mediator in the gastrointestinal tract has been well defined, and its function in tumorigenesis in various cancers (gliomas, carcinoids, and carcinomas) is being studied. many studies have shown a potential stimulatory effect of serotonin on cancer cell proliferation, invasion, dissemination, and tumor angiogenesis. although the underlying mechanism is complex, it is proposed that serotonin levels in the tumor and its interaction with specific receptor subtypes are associated with disease progression. this review article describes serotonin’s role in cancer pathogenesis and the utility of the serotonin pathway as a potential therapeutic target in cancer treatment. octreotide, an inhibitor of serotonin release, is used in well-differentiated neuroendocrine cancers, and the tryptophan hy-droxylase (tph) inhibitor, telotristat, is currently being investigated in clinical trials to treat patients with metastatic neuroendocrine tumors and advanced cholangiocarcinoma. several in vitro studies have shown the anticancer effect of 5-ht receptor antagonists in various cancers such as prostate cancer, breast cancer, urinary bladder, colorectal cancer, carcinoid, and small-cell lung cancer. more in vivo studies are needed to assess serotonin’s role in cancer and its potential use as an anticancer therapeutic target. serotonin is also being evaluated for its immunoregulatory properties, and studies have shown its potential anti-inflammatory effect. therefore, it would be of interest to explore the combination of serotonin antagonists with immunotherapy in the future.”
Mcmahon, C.. (2021). Disorders of Male Orgasm and Ejaculation. In Campbell-Walsh-Wein Urology
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“71 e jaculatory dysfunction (ejd) is one of the most common male sexual disorders. the spectrum of ejd extends from premature ejaculation (pe) through delayed ejaculation (de) to a complete inability to ejaculate (known as anejaculation) and includes retrograde ejaculation (re), painful ejaculation, ejacula-tory anhedonia, and the recently described postorgasmic illness syndrome (pois). the sexual response cycle comprises the four interactive stages of desire, arousal, orgasm, and resolution. during sexual activity, increasing levels of sexual arousal reach a threshold that triggers the ejaculatory response, which then typically terminates the sexual episode for the male. the perception of the striated muscle contractions and resulting semen expelled during ejaculation, mediated through sensory neurons in the pelvic region, gives rise to the experience of orgasm, a distinct cortical event, experienced phenom-enologically, cognitively, and emotionally. ejaculatory latency, the time extending from the onset of penile stimulation to the moment of ejaculation, represents a continuum of time that shows variation across men and, within men, across situations. although the great majority of men appear to reach ejaculation and orgasm after several minutes of penile vaginal stimulation and are, along with their partners, satisfied with the latency of their ejaculatory response, others report dissatisfaction. specifically, some men ejaculate very rapidly after, or sometimes even before, penetration and do so with minimal stimulation. others may ejaculate only with great difficulty or not at all, even after prolonged stimulation (mcmahon et al., 2013). anatomy and physiology of the ejaculatory response the ejaculatory reflex comprises sensory receptors and areas, affer-ent pathways, cerebral sensory areas, cerebral motor centres, spinal motor centers, and efferent pathways (fig. 71.1). the brain circuitry controlling ejaculation is part of a more global network controlling other aspects of the sexual response. neurochemically, this reflex involves a complex interplay between central serotonergic and dopaminergic neurons, with secondary involvement of cholinergic, adrenergic, oxytocinergic, and γ-aminobutyric acid (gaba) neurons. the peripheral events leading to ejaculation are controlled by syner-gistic activation of autonomic (sympathetic and parasympathetic) and somatic divisions of the nervous system. in addition, nonadrenergic noncholinergic (nanc) innervation…”